Existing datasets for scoring text pairs in terms of semantic similarity contain instances whose resolution differs according to the degree of difficulty. This paper proposes to distinguish obvious from non-obvious text pairs based on superficial lexical overlap and ground-truth labels. We characterise existing datasets in terms of containing difficult cases and find that recently proposed models struggle to capture the non-obvious cases of semantic similarity. We describe metrics that emphasise cases of similarity which require more complex inference and propose that these are used for evaluating systems for semantic similarity.
Nicole Peinelt, Maria Liakata, Dong Nguyen (2019): Aiming beyond the Obvious - Identifying Non-Obvious Cases in Semantic Similarity Datasets. Proceedings of the 57th Conference of the Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL 2019), pages 2792 - 2798.