The global environment for AI research, technology and talent is highly competitive. The United States (US) and China are competing for global AI dominance, and it is within this context that other nations, including the United Kingdom (UK), seek AI advantage.The UK National Cyber Security Centre (NCSC) and Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (Dstl) seek to leverage AI to develop enhanced Active Cyber Defence (ACD) capabilities.

To support Dstl and NCSC research planning, the defence and security programme at The Alan Turing Institute undertook an analysis to create a research roadmap for applied AI in ACD. The goal of this research initiative is to create radical advancements in AI powered autonomous cyber defence systems.