Gaussian Processes (GPs) can be used as exible, non-parametric function priors. Inspired by the growing body of work on Normalizing Flows, we enlarge this class of priors through a parametric invertible transformation that can be made input-dependent. Doing so also allows us to encode interpretable prior knowledge (e.g., boundedness constraints). We derive a variational approximation to the resulting Bayesian inference problem, which is as fast as stochastic variational GP regression (Hensman et al., 2013; Dezfouli and Bonilla, 2015). This makes the model a computationally efficient alternative to other hierarchical extensions of GP priors (Lazaro-Gredilla, 2012; Damianou and Lawrence, 2013). The resulting algorithm's computational and inferential performance is excellent, and we demonstrate this on a range of data sets. For example, even with only 5 inducing points and an input-dependent ow, our method is consistently competitive with a standard sparse GP fitted using 100 inducing points.
Maronas, J., Hamelijnck, O., Knoblauch, J., and Damoulas, T. (2020). Transforming Gaussian Processes With Normalizing Flows. arXiv:2011.01596.